The effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) for opioid use disorder is not well studied in criminal justice populations. We investigated associations between incarceration and BMT outcomes in a multisite, longitudinal cohort study of 306 patients initiating BMT in primary care. Data included quarterly surveys and medical record review. One-year retention in BMT appeared lower in those with a history of recent incarceration than without (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.36-1.45). Incarceration over one year was lower among those retained in BMT at least one quarter than those not retained (15% vs. 41%, p < 0.001). Findings suggest BMT patients with recent incarceration may need additional support for treatment retention. However, BMT may decrease incarceration incidence in individuals with opioid use disorder.