In 2010, the National Institute of Drug Abuse implemented an initiative targeting the “Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain” (STTR) paradigm with HIV-infected drug abusers in criminal justice populations. The aim of the initiative is to develop, implement, and test strategies to increase HIV testing, provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV seropositive individuals, and to increase engagement and retention of individuals in HIV treatment during and after community re-entry following incarceration.
Over the past 20 years, while state prisoners sentenced more than one year grew by 55%, the number of imprisoned inmates ages 55 or older increased by 401%. In 2013, prisoners ages 55 or older accounted for 9.9% of the sentenced prison population, up from 3.1% in 1993. The changing age structure in U.S. state prison population has implications for the future management and care of inmates, including increased costs associated with healthcare for older inmates, as well as mortality rates.